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Recovering from brain injuries can be excruciating. It takes a long time to adjust to the changes and the complex nature of treatment.
Usually, individuals affected by these conditions can have a number of symptoms directly related to the brain injury like paralysis and other related functional disability. Brain Injury rehabilitation focuses on bringing back the functional ability for day-to-day activities. Other such brain injury symptoms include
Our Neuro Rehabilitation Team includes a Rehabilitation Physician, Experienced Physiotherapists, Occupational Therapists, Clinical Neuropsychologists & Remedial Trainers. TBI patients receive an individualized rehabilitation program based upon the patient's strengths and capacities and that rehabilitation services should be modified over time to adapt to the patient's changing needs. This involves individually tailored treatment programs in the areas of Physical medicine & Rehabilitation, Physical therapy, Occupational therapy, Speech/language therapy, Clinical Psychology, and social support. The overall goal of rehabilitation after a TBI is to improve the patient's ability to function at home and in society. Therapists help the patient adapt to disabilities or change the patient's living space, called environmental modification, to make everyday activities easier.
There are medical complications that needs to be taken care of by Rehabilitation Physicians a few weeks or months after a brain injury. Some common ones include
An injury to the spinal cord is a nightmare and the Spinal cord injury treatment process is even scarier and difficult to comprehend. Post the surgery, spinal cord injury rehabilitation process is supported by us in a best possible way, with an active support from our expert team, during the recovery period. Our paralysis treatment plays an important role in nursing the individual back to good health. We have some of the best neuro rehab services for treating complications of spinal injury.
The commonly seen spinal injury symptoms in the individuals affected by these conditions are
Treatment of patients with spinal cord injury treatment is an ongoing process for many years and starts shortly after the injury with acute care and early surgical interventions; thereafter, sensory, motor and autonomic dysfunction treatment in the chronic phase and finally, lifelong treatment in the home environment.
This period begins with admission to hospital and stabilization of the patient’s neurological state and is a 6-12 wk bed period. The aim of rehabilitation in this period is to prevent complications that may occur long term. Passive exercises should be done intensively to resolve contractures, muscle atrophy and pain during the acute period of hospitalization in patients with complete injury. Positioning of the joints is important in order to protect the articulary structure and maintain the optimal muscle tonus. Sand bags and pillows can be useful in positioning. If the pillows and sandbags are not able to provide positioning, it can be achieved with plaster splints or more rigid orthotics. Ankle foot orthosis, knee-ankle foot orthosis or static ankle foot orthosis, etc. are mainly used for this purpose. he most important point is strengthening of the upper extremities to the maximal level in the acute period of rehabilitation in patients with complete paraplegia. Enpowering exercises for shoulder rotation are proposed for using crutches, swimming, electric bicycles and walking[ 34 ]. At the end of the acute phase, strong upper extremities are needed for the independent transfer from bed. For this purpose, active and resistance exercises to strengthen the muscles of the upper extremity should be initiated at the earliest possible period. Weight and resistance exercises can be applied with dumbbells in bed depending on the patient’s muscle strength. Electrical stimulation may be a useful alternative if extreme fatigue occurs while strengthening the muscles.
Corsets are used for fixation and supporting the spine while moving on to a sitting position after the end of the bed interval. Hyperextension corsets or plaster plastic body jackets are used in treatment of thoracic and upper lumbar region fractures. A knight-type corset would be more appropriate to support the fractures at the lower of L2 vertebrae. Knight- Taylor type corsets restrict flexion and extension of the trunk but have no restriction on rotation. Plaster or plastic body jacket corsets should be used to restrict movements in all directions.
Orthostatic hypotension is likely to be found in patients with a long period of lying in bed. Syncope can be seen in these patients while sitting and being lifted up due to low blood pressure. A tilt table may be useful for patients with this condition, starting from 45 degrees for 30 min a day. The degree is increased according to the patient’s complaints or state. Standing upright stimulates the blood pressure reflexly to a sufficient and persistent limit. The patients adapt to sit and stand and are prepared to transfer and balance. When the patient comes to the upright position with a tilt table, the patient should be in a sitting position on the edge of the bed 3-4 times a day and balance exercises should be done to maintain this position. Independent sitting on the edge of the bed is very important for wheelchair use, enabling wheelchair transfer. The purpose of this rehabilitation period should focus on stability and strength education for sitting and transportation. Functional goals must prepare the patient for movements such sitting up in bed or a wheelchair, dressing and transfers. Initially, the goal is for successful bed movements. ROM and stretching exercises are used for functional activities. Exercises for sitting, balance and strengthening of the upper extremities should be done at the beginning. Patients who can tolerate sitting can begin to push up, with static and dynamic balance training to transfer to the wheelchair.
Wheelchairs, walkers and crutches are used for out of bed transferring of patients. The wheelchair is the most important tool for SCI patients to be mobile and participate in social life. Ideally, wheelchairs must allow for optimal mobility, protect skin integrity and maintain the normal anatomical posture. A battery assisted wheelchair is appropriate for injuries at the upper segments, whereas a manual wheelchair is preferred at lower levels. Wheelchair dimensions such as the height, pelvic width, seat length, backrest, seat and arm support should be specifically prescribed for each patient.
The success of splints or other attempts for functional ambulation depends on whether the injury is complete or incomplete and the injury level. An incomplete SCI patient has the potential to walk, irrespective of level. The beginning of functional ambulation level is considered to be T12. Truncal and pelvic stabilization must be provided to stand and mobilize in the parallel bars. Mobilization in the parallel bars, standing and balance training exercises should be started and the patient could be supported by a posterior shell in the parallel bars during this period. A long and locked knee joint walking device is utilized, ensuring the integrity and stability of the lower extremity joints in patients after the upright standing with a posterior shell. The benefits of standing are a reduction in spasticity and the risk of DVT, bowel and bladder function recovery, prevention of pressure ulcers and osteoporosis, and reduction in depression. Functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) is based on innervating nerve fibers of intact muscles. If the muscles are denervated, FNS stimulates the muscle fibers. A study suggests that suitable activation to specific muscles of the trunk and lower extremity can enable patients with SCI to alter their standing postures with minimal upper body effort and subsequently increase the muscle volume.
The most important goal is realization of the independent mobilization for both complete and incomplete paraplegic patients during the chronic period. Ambulation can be social, domestic and aimed at exercise. The patient must be able to walk 50 m unaided or with assistive devices for social ambulation. Those who ambulate domestically can walk independently or with partial assistance and need a little help or can be independent at home. Those who ambulate for exercise need advanced help for walking or transferring. Factors such as injury level, age, weight, general health status, motivation and spasticity affect the ambulation potential. Generally, patients with an injury of T10 and above can be ambulated for exercise. Patients with T11-L2 injuries can ambulate in the home (domestic) and the patients of more distal injuries can ambulate socially.
Walkers, crutches and orthoses are important to provide chronic stage ambulation. Patients with pelvic control can walk with an orthosis or crutches outside the parallel bars. If the muscle strength of quadriceps femoris is normal, patients can walk with elbow crutches and orthosis without needing a wheelchair. In patients with complete injury of C8-T12, ambulation can be achieved by a parawalker (hip guidance orthosis), both in the house and outside. Walking devices used in spinal cord injury are becoming more and more lightweight and easy to move. However, the devices with advanced technological features are also more expensive. Oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and walking speed can vary significantly depending on the shape, type and weight of material of devices used by the patients. One of them is the RGO (Reciprocating Gait orthosis). For effective use, patient’s excess weight reduction and increased aerobic capacity must be maintained and muscle mass must be increased. RGO has been further developed and is more complicated and more expensive than ARGO. ARGO also leads to an excessive waste of energy like RGO. Hybrid walking devices were created by adding Functional Electrical Stimulation to orthosis. Walking is becoming better within the hybrid devices. Robotic training is a new approach and is developing day by day. A case report showed that upper extremity function has been improved by robotic assistance over four weeks. After training, manual muscle test scores of wrist extensor, finger flexor and finger abductor are significantly increased. Another study demonstrated that the robotic-assisted gait training using the locomat system improved the functional outcome of subacute SCI patients.
The most important expectations in the chronic phase or phase to return home are ensuring the maximum independence related to the level of the patient’s injury, integration of the patient to society and teaching the importance of the family’s role.
In addition, house modifications are important for patients with SCI in order to have independent activities of daily living. Door width should be 81.5 cm for manual wheelchair access and 86.5 cm for battery assisted wheelchairs. The height of electric switches should be 91.5 cm. Adequate insulation and heat must be provided at home. Door handles must be the “leverage shaped” type and the height of the door sills should not impede the passage of a wheelchair for tetraplegic patients. Carpets should be removed and the surface should be hard in order to maneuver the wheelchair. Bath tubs should be mounted on the wall and must have handles. The height of kitchen apparatuses should be accessible to the patient. There must be a ramp at the entrance to the house.
One of the important features of this period is restoring the patient’s psychological and emotional state again because of the high incidence of depression in patients (the incidence is about 1/3 in the first six months). Depression is not a natural process experienced after SCI but is a complication that needs to be treated. Suicide is the most common cause of death after SCI among patients under the age of 55. Frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder is 17% and usually occurs in the first 5 years. Consultation with a psychiatrist is needed if there is psychotic behavior and depression. Occupational therapy and finding the patient’s role in society are most important factors in restoring the psychological state. Social and psychological problems in the absence of daily activities have been reported. Suicide attempts have been reported due to a lack of daily activity, depression, alcohol dependence and emotional distress. Occupational therapy allows SCI patients to be more social, to use their own functions for creative jobs and to deal with psychological problems like depression.
Occupational therapy is an important part of the rehabilitation process. In developed countries, occupational therapy is carried out by the occupational therapist in the rehabilitation team. Occupational therapists assess the patient’s limitations and plan the occupational activities. Occupational therapy is planned and implemented depending on the social and cultural characteristics of individuals, level of education, personality traits, interests, values, attitudes and behaviors before and after the injury. Pictures, music, crafts, ceramic work and a variety of activities (for example, sports) and entertainment are implemented and planned to focus on the purpose in the occupational treatment.
It is the dream of every parent to see their newborn evolve into a successful being. Our expertise in pediatric rehabilitation includes
Special fall prevention program, flexibility training and Cognitive Retraining for Independence in Mobility and Activities of Daily Living helps Patients with
Usually individuals affected by these conditions can have a number of symptoms such as